9 Feb 2024

breast cancer; It means that breast cells mutate and change and grow out of control, forming cancerous tissue masses called tumors. Breast cancer, which can also be seen in men, is a type of cancer that is most common in women over the age of 50 around the world. However, it has also been seen to affect younger women.

As with many types of cancer, there is a possibility of metastasis in breast cancer. Metastasis refers to the spread of cancerous cells to other parts of the body.
The first and earliest common symptoms of breast cancer are a new swelling, lump and thickening felt in the breast area. breast cancer; If it is diagnosed and treated early by mammography, it increases the person's chance of continuing his or her life in a healthy way.


Breast cancer types are determined as a result of the pathology examination performed on the tissue taken by biopsy and are divided into two as noninvasive or in situ (not spreading) and invasive (showing spread).

Invasive Carcinoma

An invasive type of cancer occurs when the cancer spreads beyond the upper layer of the cell, where it started. Most breast cancers are invasive carcinomas and spread. Among cancers that can spread, ductal carcinoma, which arises from the cells that form the breast ducts, is the most common type of breast cancer.

Noninvasive Carcinoma (Non-spreading)

Noninvasive carcinoma, one of the types of breast cancer, is a type of breast cancer that does not spread to cancerous cell tissues, called metastasis.


Breast cancer occurs when cells in the breast grow abnormally and uncontrollably and turn into tumor tissues. Common causes of breast cancer include sedentary lifestyle, age factor, genetics, smoking-alcohol consumption, obesity and radiation exposure.
Especially a person who has had breast cancer in their family should go for regular check-ups if they are over 40 years of age.

Common causes of breast cancer include:

still life

A sedentary life, as in many diseases and cancers, is among the conditions that cause breast cancer.

Age factor

The risk of breast cancer is considered to be higher in women over the age of 40. For this reason, you need to have it checked regularly.


Women are much more likely to get breast cancer than men.


If you have parents, siblings, children, or other close relatives who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, you are more likely to develop breast cancer at some point in your life. Approximately 5% to 10% of breast cancers are known to be caused by single abnormal genes passed from parents to children and can be discovered through genetic testing.

Smoking and alcohol consumption

Smoking and alcohol consumption are linked to many different types of cancer, including breast cancer. Research has shown that drinking alcohol may increase your risk of certain types of breast cancer.


The risk of breast cancer and breast cancer recurrence may increase in people struggling with obesity .

Radiation and chemical exposure

People who have previously received radiation therapy, especially in the head, neck, or chest area, are considered to be more likely to develop breast cancer.

hormone replacement therapy

People who have hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.


Persistent swelling in the breast or armpit, dimpling in the breast, swelling, redness or thickening of the nipple or breast skin, change in breast size or shape, inward turning of the nipple, and nipple discharge are symptoms of breast cancer.

Symptoms of breast cancer that occur with swelling and a new mass in the breast are as follows:

  • Swelling of all or part of the breast
  • A palpable mass in the breast or armpit
  • Pain in the breast or nipple
  • Nipple turning inward
  • nipple discharge
  • Peeling, redness or flaking of breast skin or nipples
  • Change in breast shape and size
  • Irritation and dimpling in the chest area
  • Bleeding discharge from the nipple
  • enlargement of chest veins
  • Persistent swelling under the armpit

What are the Stages of Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer stages are divided into five and include:
Stage 0:  DCIS
Stage I: The tumor is smaller than 2 cm and has not yet spread to the lymph nodes.
Stage II: The tumor is between 2 and 5 cm in size and may or may not have spread to the surrounding lymph nodes.
Stage III: It means it has spread further to the surrounding lymph nodes.
Stage IV: It means it has metastasized to other organs (bone, liver, brain, lung) or to bone or distant lymph nodes.


Breast cancer diagnosed early is both very easy to treat and has a very high chance of success. For example, the chance of success in breast cancer detected at Stage 0 and the probability of the disease not recurring is 96%. The success rate is 93% in Stage I and 85% in Stage II. The earlier it is diagnosed, the higher the chance of success.
They are non-cancerous masses called fibroadenomas or cysts seen in young ages and fibrocystic masses seen in middle ages. Whether the lump in the breast is painful or painless does not mean it is cancer.

Mammography and tomosynthesis mammography

Digital mammography and tomosynthesis devices are used in breast cancer diagnosis and screening programs. Tomosynthesis is a technology that uses low-dose X-rays and obtains high-resolution images. Thanks to mammography technologies, breast cancer can be diagnosed at an early stage and treatment planning can be made accordingly.

Ultrasonography (USG)

It is defined as an imaging system suitable for advanced technological infrastructure that performs breast tissue examination through sound waves to detect cancerous cells in the breast. This system, which does not require any preparation before ultrasound imaging, also does not contain radiation. This system, which is used for breast cancer detection, also shows whether the mass formed is solid or liquid. It is also known as the imaging system that is frequently used in all age groups to examine abnormalities in breast tissues.

Emar -MR (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

Magnetic Resonance or MRI is one of the preferred imaging techniques in breast cancer examinations. In soft tissue examinations, drug-guided imaging is performed. This device, which has a strong magnetic infrastructure, may require comfortable clothing before MRI scanning. The ideal time period for breast tissue examinations for women is stated as 7 to 10 days before the menstrual cycle. These shots can take approximately 40 minutes or 1 hour. 1.5 Tesla MRI and 3 Tesla MRI are used in Memorial Health Group hospitals.


It can be described as a radiological method used in the cancer stage, such as detecting cancer cells and determining treatment methods. It is necessary to determine whether the mass causing cancer is benign or malignant. Tumor size causes cancer to spread throughout the body. This is very important in determining the risk ratio. Some preparations are required before PET-CT imaging. At the beginning of these preparations, food consumption must be stopped for a period of 6 to 8 hours before the shooting.

Breast Scintigraphy

Scintigraphy is one of the breast cancer examination methods that is painless, reliable, and has minimal side effects and allergies. Small amounts of radioactive substances can be administered orally, intravenously, etc. is given. It is possible to evaluate the spread of cancerous foci to different organs using scintigraphic methods. Shooting should be done after fasting for at least 6 hours. It is important to remain still during these shots, which will last approximately 30 minutes. Aprons, clothes etc. No change of clothes is required. Early diagnosis of breast cancer is of great importance. Every woman should perform breast self-examination starting from the age of 20, regular monthly check-ups, and follow-up mammography from the age of 40. 8 out of 10 breast masses are benign; So it is not cancer.


For early detection of breast cancer, every woman over the age of 40 should have an annual mammogram. Thus, it is possible to detect breast cancer before it reaches a tangible size. However, it is recommended to have at least one mammogram in your 30s and keep the film as a reference for future mammograms.

Medical examination

Regular doctor follow-up is very important for detecting and diagnosing breast cancer at an early stage. Even if they have no complaints, all women after the age of 40 should consult a doctor and be examined. The breast cancer diagnosis and treatment process is carried out by general surgeons who are experts in breast cancer. Your doctor, who carries out your routine follow-up on women's health or your general health, may also request the necessary tests for the early diagnosis of breast cancer.


Breast cancer treatment varies depending on the stage of the patient. In stage 0, postoperative chemotherapy treatment may not be needed. Radiotherapy is often added to the treatment. In Stages I and II, since the mass is small, it is decided whether surgery will be applied first and then chemotherapy. In Stage III, first chemotherapy treatment is administered and then the patient undergoes surgery. In stage IV, surgery may be considered if the cancer has not spread to too many parts of the body.



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