Aq Qoyunlu history overview with rulers

12 Mar 2024

The Aq Qoyunlu, also known as the White Sheep Turkomans, were a Turkoman tribal confederation that ruled over parts of present-day Iran, Iraq, and eastern Turkey during the 15th century. Here's an overview of their history and notable rulers: 1. **Foundation:** - The Aq Qoyunlu emerged in the early 15th century in the region of present-day Azerbaijan, amidst the collapse of the Mongol Ilkhanate. - Qara Yusuf, the founder of the Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, established himself as the ruler of the Turkoman tribes in the region. 2. **Expansion and Consolidation:** - Qara Yusuf's son, Uzun Hasan, expanded the Aq Qoyunlu territories through military conquests and diplomatic alliances. - Uzun Hasan's reign marked the zenith of Aq Qoyunlu power, with their territory stretching from Anatolia to Persia. 3. **Conflicts with the Timurids and the Safavids:** - The Aq Qoyunlu were often in conflict with neighboring powers, particularly the Timurids and the emerging Safavid Empire. - Uzun Hasan faced a series of battles against the Timurid ruler Abu Sa'id, culminating in the Battle of Qarabagh in 1469. 4. **Decline and Fragmentation:** - After Uzun Hasan's death in 1478, the Aq Qoyunlu entered a period of decline and internal strife. - The succession disputes among his sons weakened the dynasty, leading to fragmentation and loss of central authority. 5. **End of the Dynasty:** - The final blow to the Aq Qoyunlu came with the rise of the Safavid Empire under Ismail I, who defeated the last Aq Qoyunlu ruler, Murad Beg, in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514. - After the defeat, the Aq Qoyunlu territories were gradually absorbed into the Safavid Empire. Notable rulers of the Aq Qoyunlu dynasty include: - Qara Yusuf - Uzun Hasan (also known as Sultan Husayn) - Murad Beg The Aq Qoyunlu's brief but significant presence in the region left an imprint on the political landscape of the Middle East, particularly in Anatolia and Iran.

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