2 Mar 2023


♦️It refers to a situation where an outside state exercises particular economic or military exclusiveness over another region.

♦️ In the context of a sphere of
influence, there is no sovereign control over the other territory.

♦️When one state exercisesits sphere of influence over another state, it restricts the rights of the other power to exercise influence and also imposes limitations on the autonomy of states on which influence is exe

♦️In 1990, an American scholar named John Kincaid proposed the concept of paradiplomacy. If we try to define paradiplomacy in the Indian context, then it is a concept where we analyse and study the role played by a local government or a state government to enhance diplomatic ties with countries in the neighborhood.

♦️Paradiplomacy can allow a state to promote trade, culture, flow of economic ideas, and even outsource business and so on. In the recent times, paradiplomacy has been activated by India between India’s north eastern states and Bangladesh when Sheikh Hasina visited India in


♦️A revolution means a sudden change in the system of governance of a state through violence. A revolution also signifies a change in the value system of the state.

♦️For the Marxist and Leninists, a revolution involves a socio-economic change in the society.

♦️Scholars like Edward Hallett Carr and Martin Wight feel that revolutions often cause instability and thus are not conducive to maintain order in the system.2017.rcised.

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