The largest earthquake in the world this year

7 Feb 2023

An earthquake with a magnitude of 7.8 occurred in Turkey at 9:17 on February 6, 2023.The epicenter of the earthquake was located at 37.15° north latitude and 36.95° east longitude. So far, the earthquake has caused a large number of local casualties in Turkey. At the same time, the earthquake has also caused the collapse of a large number of houses and buildings. The earthquake rescue work has been fully carried out.

The earthquake with a magnitude of 7.8 in Turkey this time is the largest earthquake in the world this year. In fact, Turkey itself is a country with frequent earthquakes. Looking back, we found that on November 19, 2021, a magnitude 5.1 earthquake occurred in Turkey; in 2017 On July 21, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake occurred in southwestern Turkey; on December 2, 2015, a 5.5-magnitude earthquake occurred in eastern Turkey; on May 19, 2011, a 5.9-magnitude earthquake occurred in western Turkey. Why are earthquake disasters frequent and serious in Turkey?

Earthquake refers to a process of rapid release of energy due to the vibration of the earth's crust, and the collision and extrusion between plates, resulting in dislocation and fracture of rock layers, is the main cause of earthquakes. Therefore, those countries and regions in the world that are located at the junction of plates have frequent earthquakes. There are two famous seismic belts in the world, namely the Mediterranean-Himalayan seismic belt and the circum-Pacific seismic belt.

Turkey is located on the Mediterranean-Himalayan seismic belt. Countries and regions on this seismic belt, such as Italy, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southwestern China, Myanmar and Indonesia, have frequent earthquakes. For the same reason, countries and regions located on the Pacific Rim seismic belt, such as the Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, the Russian Far East, the West Coast of the United States, Mexico, Peru, and Chile, are also prone to earthquakes.

Judging from the distribution map of the world's six major plates, Turkey is actually located at the junction of three major plates, which are the Eurasian plate, the African plate and the Indian Ocean plate. In and near Turkey, there are two plate boundaries, which run east-west, and are formed by the collision and extrusion of the Eurasian plate, the African plate, and the Indian Ocean plate. The three major plates collided and squeezed strongly in the north-south direction. On the one hand, Turkey continued to uplift, forming the Anatolian Plateau. On the other hand, it also caused the rock formations in Turkey and nearby areas to be squeezed and deformed, accumulating huge energy, and from time to time Rock formations fracture, causing earthquakes.

Due to the cracking of the plate, a deep canyon is formed on the surface. The land with the lowest altitude in the world The Dead Sea is located in the Jordan Valley, and the growth boundary extends northward to the Jordan Plateau, where it meets the death boundary. Due to the existence of growth boundaries, the rock formations in Turkey and nearby areas are more fragmented and more prone to earthquake disasters. Of course, the earthquake was located in southern Turkey and had a major impact on many places in Syria.

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